DiSC Profiles Overview

DISC Overview

DISC is a behavioral model developed by William Moulton Marston in 1928. The DISC model describes the four behavioral styles as Dominance (D), Influence (I), Steadiness (S), and Conscientiousness (C). However, what we know today as behavioral styles was initially introduced by Marston as “primary emotions” with associated behavioral responses. The same was mentioned in his book “Emotions of Normal People”.


Marston observed several people and began to notice incredible similarities among them. Although each one looked physically different, there were great similarities in how they acted. Methodically, he jotted down all the similarities and summarized the following four ways people generally acted:


  • Some people were forceful, direct and result-oriented
  • Some were optimistic, fun and talkative
  • Some were steady, patient and relaxed
  • Some were precise, accurate and detail oriented

Marston also found that some people had characteristics of two or even three of the behaviors, but one behavior seemed to be the strongest. He also concluded that if we become like the person we are talking to, maybe we can be more effective in our communication and interpersonal relationships.


Since the time of its inception, DISC model has undergone several changes and modifications which has contributed to its development. Overtime, DISC became a universal language of observable behaviors. Scientific research, too, has validated these findings.


What is DISC?

In order to understand what is DISC, we need to first establish what DISC is not.
  • DISC is not a measurement of a person’s intelligence.
  • DISC is not an indicator of a person’s values.
  • DISC is not a measurement of skills and experience.
  • DISC is not a measurement of education and training.
Then, what is DISC and why is it important?

DISC is a neutral universal language of behavior and emotions. It is the language of our behavioral tendencies and “how we act”. A person’s behavior is a necessary and integral part of who they are. In other words, much of our behavior comes from “nature” (inherent) and much comes from “nurture” (our upbringing). The DISC model merely analyzes behavioral style, that is, a person’s manner of doing things.


When we say that DISC is a neutral language it means that right and wrong has got nothing to do with it. A person’s behavioral style is not what makes them good or bad, right or wrong. Right and wrong is based on values and beliefs of the people. DISC only describes the difference in how people approach problems, other people, pace and procedures.


The Two Dimensions behind DISC

At the core, the DISC model is two dimensional. The two dimensions reflect fundamental aspects of human nature.


image of two dimensions of DISC (refer page 3 of DISC manual)

The first dimension is “pace” which is visualized with a vertical axis that runs from fast-paced at the top to moderate-paced at the bottom. Pace describes the person’s outward activity level. A fast-paced person displays a high level of outward energy which is characterized by being outspoken and assertive. A person scoring towards the bottom of this dimension is moderate-paced displaying a moderate to low level of outward energy. People who are moderately paced display characteristics such as thoughtful, careful and uncomfortable taking risks.


It is easy to identify the pace of a person – simply notice their “walking-talking-shopping” style. Fast paced individuals walk and talk fast and do not take their own sweet time to shop. If they like something, they buy it. Whereas, moderately paced individuals would preferably do some research, read reviews, look for options, compare pros and cons before shopping. Additionally, they walk and talk slower than a fast-paced person.


The second dimension is “orientation” which is visualized as a horizontal axis that runs from being task-oriented to being people-oriented. Orientation refers to a person’s inclination either towards task or people. Task-oriented individuals are skeptical – they are analytical, questioning, and cynical and focus more on results. People-oriented individuals are accepting – they are trusting and receptive of others, are friendly and strive to maintain social harmony.


image of two dimensions of DISC (refer page 3 of DISC manual)

To identify the orientation of an individual takes a little longer. The first most noticeable characteristic is the pace of the person. By being a little more observant and identifying the pace and orientation of oneself and others, we can recognize the DISC style.


The first dimension is “pace” which is visualized with a vertical axis that runs from fast-paced at the top to moderate-paced at the bottom. Pace describes the person’s outward activity level. A fast-paced person displays a high level of outward energy which is characterized by being outspoken and assertive. A person scoring towards the bottom of this dimension is moderate-paced displaying a moderate to low level of outward energy. People who are moderately paced display characteristics such as thoughtful, careful and uncomfortable taking risks.


The DISC Quadrants

The two dimensions of pace and orientation create the four DISC quadrants – Dominance (D), Influence (I), Steadiness (S), and Conscientiousness (C).


four quadrants of DISC

These four quadrants are called styles that refers to a set of typical response or behavioral patterns that are expected from a person. Relating to the two dimensional model, D and I styles are fast-paced and S and C styles are moderately-paced individuals. Similarly, D and C styles are task-oriented or skeptical and S and C styles are people-oriented individuals.


It should be noted that if a person is a D style then he or she will only demonstrate characteristics of that style. Any individual is a combination of all the four styles. However, being located in any one of the quadrants mean that the characteristics defining that style are the dominant behaviors and preferences of the person. For instance, D style characteristics are the dominant behavioral tendencies of an individual. However, from time to time, a D style person can demonstrate characteristics of I, S and C styles as well.


For finer differentiation, each of the four DISC styles can be further split into three more segments. Therefore, 12 DISC styles can be identified. 4 out of these 12 styles are “pure” or “natural” styles – D, I, S and C. The remaining 8 styles are a combination of 2 styles, namely, Di, iD, iS, Si, SC, CS, CD, DC.


four quadrants of DISC
Let us now understood each style in detail:
  1. Dominance/Influence (Di or iD) styles: Both these styles are fast-paced and dynamic in nature. Individuals of either of these styles have a bias towards action, are bold and adventurous. A combination of self-confidence and social poise describes these styles and it is this that leads them to be entrepreneurial and risk-takers.
  2. Influence (i) styles: i styles are fast-paced, lively and extremely outgoing. They are high on energy and have positive interpersonal relationships with others. Two adjectives that describe them are enthusiastic and high-spirited.
  3. Influence/Steadiness (iS or Si) styles: These styles are enthusiastic but not as extremely as i styles. Rather, they are extremely gentle and cheerful. Both these styles are trusting of others and always tend to see the best in others. Two adjectives that describe them best are compassionate and welcoming. The iS styles are more upbeat and light-hearted whereas, the Si styles are more supportive and agreeable.
  4. Steadiness (S) styles: S styles are both interpersonally warm and moderately-paced and therefore, are described as calm, peaceful or even-tempered. Since, S styles are supportive in nature, they are also very accommodating and show a great deal of concern for others.
  5. Steadiness/Conscientiousness (SC or CS) styles: Being opposite to D style, these two styles are less action-oriented and rather, deliberate on their options. They tend to take a step-by-step approach to decision making. These two styles prefer to be behind the scenes of all actions and demonstrate a great deal of passivity.
  6. Conscientiousness (C) styles: The most appropriate adjective to describe C styles is analytical. Being diametrically opposite to I styles, individuals who are C styles are more reserved than enthusiastic. They tend to be cautious and skeptical about expressing emotions and take a logical and data-driven approach to decision-making.
  7. Conscientious/Dominance (CD or DC) styles: Both these styles are task-oriented and skeptical but not to the extent of being highly aggressive or highly withdrawn. The most appropriate adjective to describe this style is challenging. CD styles are unsentimental and matter-of-fact and DC styles are resolute and strong-willed.
  8. Dominance (D) styles: The most direct way to describe D styles are as being dominant. D styles are direct, result-oriented, competitive, strong-willed and forceful and they show less concern for the preferences of other people.

These are the 12 behavioral styles described. Now, getting an overview of the DISC model, thinking why we should learn about it?


Judy Suiter said, “You must first make an investment before you can expect a return. Investment always precedes return. Always.” Understanding the DISC model and its language is like an investment - an investment that yields better interpersonal relationships, effective team building, and increased commitment by preventing conflict. If we become aware and understand the behavioral tendencies of ourselves and others, we can become more effective in communicating with others and pave the way for increased positive results.


History of DiSC

William Moulton Marston

In the year 1928, William Moulton Marston who was popular by his pen name Charles Moulton, a famous academician & psychologist and a women’s’ right advocate suggested the behavioral model christened DISC. Charles Marston is the well known author of the comic series Wonder women. Marston lived with two women - his wife Elizabeth Holloway Marston and partner Olive Byrne and they both contributed significantly to the creation of the comic character - Wonder women. He is better known as the inventor of the polygraph machine (lie detector) and most importantly – he is the researcher and Psychologist behind the DISC Theory.


Marston propagated a co-relation between telling a lie and a rise in blood pressure. He went on to create the polygraph machine - called the systolic blood pressure test. This blood pressure test in an important component of the modern polygraph machine. Incidentally, it was Marston's wife Elizabeth Holloway Marston who suggested a co-relation between emotion and blood pressure to William Marston.


Marston was deeply entrenched in the study of human behavior and greatly influenced academic writings in that era. Marston published a book christened "EMOTIONS OF NORMAL PEOPLE" in which he presented his findings about the influence of will and personal power on observable behavior. Marston proposed the behavioral model along two axis - one that depends on one's perception of environment as being favorable and non favorable and other being on the perception of power viz a viz the environment. By placing these axis on a right angle, he derived a model behind the DISC theory. The DISC Theory that Marston proposed had four behavioral dimensions:


  • Dominance (now called dominance) - Observable activity in an antagonistic environment
  • Inducement (now called influence) - Observable activity in a favorable environment
  • Submission (now called steadiness) - Observable passivity in a favorable environment
  • Compliance (now called conscientiousness) - Observable passivity in an antagonistic environment

The four elements model could also be traced all the way back to Empedocles(444 BC). In the pre-Socratic philosophy, human behavior was explained using four external, environmental elements. Empedocles called these the four “roots” or elements of WATER, AIR, FIRE and EARTH. Later, the Hippocrates have believed to further developed on this perspective. The Four Temperaments from Hippocrates and The Four Humors from Galen, believed that a balance of four bodily fluids - Phlegm/Phlegmatic associated with water, Yellow Bile/choleric associated with fire, Black bile/Melancholic - associated with earth and Blood/Sanguine associated with the element air- are necessary to maintain good health.


In early 1920s, Carl Gustav Jung developed the theory around personality types which later evolved into the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment. Carl Jung continues to attribute personality to internal influences and associated personality types to the way we think and process information. Carl Jung published "Psychological Types" a book that detailed the personality types attributed to the way we perceive the world - Sensation, Intuition, Feeling, and Thinking. In fact it was Katharine Briggs and Isabel Myers who first published the Myer Brigg Type Indicator (MBTI) questionnaire in 1943. Incidentally, when Katharine Briggs first met Isabel’s future husband, Clarence Myers, she was inspired and intrigued to see Clarence's different way of seeing the world around himself. She then started an extensive literature review and ended up developing the instrument based on Carl Jung's "Psychological" types. Before being taken over by Consulting Psychologists Press (CPP), Educational Testing Service first published the MBTI questionnaire. It is now available in 14 languages.


In 1956, an industrial psychologist called Walter Clarke constructed an instrument to help organizations select qualified employees. Based on the DISC theory by William Moulton Marston, Walter Clarke published what is called "Activity Vector Analysis" - a checklist of adjectives used to describe behavior.


Walter Clarke Associates then developed a new version of this instrument for John Cleaver - some 10 years after the emergence of the first instrument. It was aptly called Self-Description. In Self - description, instead of using checklist of adjectives to describe behaviors, this test invited the respondents make a choice between two or more terms in a forced choice questionnaire. Factor analysis of this assessment contributed to the development of the DISC instrument. Self Description was later used by John Geier, Ph.D., to create the original Personal Profile System (PPS).


Dr. John Geier was the founder of Geier Learning International and worldwide consultants, Performax Learning Network and Carlson Learning. Carlson Learning later became Inscape Publishing which was recently taken over by John Wiley & Sons. He further developed on the 15 styles proposed by Clarke that were now called the 15 classical patterns - Achiever, Agent, Appraiser, Counselor, Creative, Developer, Inspirational, Investigator, Objective Thinker, Perfectionist, Persuader, Practitioner, Promoter, Result-oriented and Specialist.


Comparison of DiSC with other Psychometric Instruments

We use DiSC extensively and many of our trainers are certified to administer many other instruments. All instruments have an "appropriate / best fit" application. Once you are sure that the reliability and validity of a psychometric instruments is established, one must then consider the knowledge one has to administer the assessment. Often, Psychometric assessment is followed by coaching and training interventions. It then becomes important that we ascertain the kind of support, training and resources available to us for rolling out a corporate learning program.


DiSC and Myer Brigg Type Indicators are usually used in compliment to each other. They have different applications. In our understanding, DiSC is more behavioral in its context and is good to drive corporate training programs to build behavioral flexibility. MBTI (Myer Briggs Type Indicator) provides insight on personality types and is often used for building self awareness.


When two people take an Psychometric / Behavioral assessment, they come to understand their own behavioral priorities. Interpersonal effectiveness demands that we understand our own behavioral style, decipher the style or priorities of others and then treat others the way they wish to be treated. DiSC makes it simple to spot the style (and remember the styles) of others given that there are only four types.


Myers-Briggs Type Indicator as described by Wikipedia is " a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions." It is based on 8 traits, 4 pairs of seemingly opposed traits.


The opposing trait pairs are in MBTI are:


  • Extroversion (E) – (I) Introversion
  • Sensing (S) – (N) Intuition
  • Thinking (T) – (F) Feeling
  • Judging (J) – (P) Perception

Based on these the assessment ascertains a personality type consisting of 4 letter based on the preferred type for an individual from the 4 pairs. e:g ENTJ, ENFP, EITJ, ENFJ etc. MBTI is a well established and well documented tool and has good reputation as well.


Corporate rolls outs of assessments are mired in complexity. Getting a buy in of the sponsors, establishing a common business need, motivating and making participants to commit to the program and of course the budget - all play a vital role. In order to ensure the sustainability of an initiative, it is important ot make the content easy to remember. DiSC score hugely in this regard. With just four types, and a visual representation on a DiSC circumplex, it supports varied pedagogues. It is apt for both beginner and experienced participants. In simple words - its easy to remember and easier to roll out! If the objective of taking an assessment is how to relate to your co-workers - peers, managers or others or even family, then it will help to identify your strengths and challenges and gain an understanding on what environment suits you best - and DISC may be best suited to your need. For its simplicity and practicality.


Here are some of the factors to consider when choosing a psychometric instrument:

  • What is the outcome of the initiative? - Behavioral development, recruitment, succession planning, internal mobility etc.
  • What is the experience and commitment of the participants?
  • What is your pedagogue and how important is it to keep the roll out simple and memorable (take a 3-6 months view).
  • Compliance (now called conscientiousness) - Observable passivity in an antagonistic environment
  • What is the role of the participants in the organization. DiSC for example comes with role specific reports. When a report is specific to a role, respondents relate to it better. ED Work of Leaders is for leaders, ED Management for Mangers, ED Workplace is rather generic and ED Sales for sales people.
  • What is the budget and how would the debrief session be conducted?
  • Do you have the requisite support and resources to help you with the toll out. Strengthscape, for example, provides ongoing support it its DiSC certified trainers - virtually across the world and in person where possible to build sessions, complimentary access to its Online DiSC certification as a refresher and multiple home grown training games and activities to make your training programs effective and fun.

The above comparison is put together based on the feedback received from our trainers and the experience of our customers. It's not comprehensive or complete. Many of our trainers have more extensive experience in using DiSC and therefore prefer the same.


With over 50 million assessments done globally till date, an established financial and management commitment to research and an able network of Authorized Partners, Everything DiSC series of DiSC assessments is our preferred series of behavioral assessments.


Everything DiSC Workplace Profile

The Everything DiSC assessments by John Wiley & Sons are globally recognized tools in enhancing self-awareness and creating effective workplace relationships.


The Everything DiSC Workplace profile is a generic profile that can be used for people across hierarchical levels and for a multitude of outcomes. The profile can help people in:


  • Understanding own behavioral priorities with the help of the DiSC Map
  • Understanding other behavioral priorities of people whose DiSC style is different from our own style
  • Creating strategies for behavioral flexing to enhance and improve the quality of workplace relationships
workplace

The Everything DiSC Workplace profile maps the DiSC style of individual and comes with 8 priorities that are used to help people understand the DiSC Model in practical terms. The priority words help individuals understand the relationship between their location on the DiSC Map with the other locations. This is a powerful tool for creating empathy and understanding towards other styles thereby enhancing the effectiveness of workplace relationships.


The workplace priorities as seen in the Everything DiSC Workplace assessment are relevant not only to the DiSC Map but also refer to generic priorities required in any workplace. Each of the priority words is defined in a specific manner that relates them to the workplace and also the specific DiSC style. Priorities that are closer together share more in common than the ones that are farther apart.


In the table given below, each priority word is described using specific statements.
PRIORITY WORD DEFINITION
Action This priority refers to the preference for being action-oriented. People with this priority actively look out for new opportunities and are open to taking risks.
Enthusiasm People with this priority show great enthusiasm for work. They are optimistic and encourage and environment where people have fun.
Collaboration Collaboration refers to the preference for communicating regularly with people at work. Such people seek opportunities for collaboration and encourage teamwork.
Support The priority for support is about being available to help others any time. People with this priority are patient with mistakes and prefer to give tactful feedback, as opposed to direct feedback.
Stability People who look for stability, prefer to work at a steady pace. They prefer to work with set schedules rather than dealing with work as it comes along. People with this priority also go by rules and procedures.
Accuracy The preference for accuracy refers to ensuring quality, even if it takes longer time. People with this priority take have a logical approach and prefer to undertake in-depth analysis before taking any decision.
Challenge Challenge refers to the need for speaking out about problems rather than keeping issues to oneself. People with this priority are more questioning and do not accept things at face-value. They also tend to question rules and procedures that they believe are not efficient.
Results People, with results as a priority, are direct with opinions and ideas. They always look towards new goals and have expectations not only from themselves, but also others.

The Everything DiSC Workplace assessment enables us to understand ourselves better – our priorities, strengths and possible challenges. Since self-awareness is the first step towards self-improvement, this assessment is a great tool to enable people to enhance personal effectiveness.


However, behavioral effectiveness is not just about managing own priorities, but displaying appropriate behavior as the situation demands. The second aspect of the Everything DiSC Workplace assessment is to make us more aware about people around us. We understand not only ourselves better, but also priorities, strengths and possible challenges of people around us. This gives us an insight on how to work with people who have priorities that are different from our own. Flexing own behavior based on the situation is what leads to inter-personal effectiveness, and with DiSC we can learn how and when to flex our own behavior. However, working with people who are like us is not all that easy, it comes with its own challenges. DiSC also makes us aware of possible challenges while working with people having the same priorities as our own.


With a deep understanding of ourselves and people around us, it becomes easier to build rapport, collaborate with people and create a work environment that is conducive for all. Everything DiSC Workplace is a versatile tool that can help us understand and manage workplace challenges better.

Everything DiSC Management Profile

Everything DiSC Management is a behavioral assessment especially meant for people managers. It provides great insight on how one approach work priorities and relationships and workplace. It is based on a few principles:


  • Everyone can be an effective manager irrespective of one behavioral priorities or in other words irrespective of one's DiSC style.
  • Self awareness is the key to personal and interpersonal effectiveness.
  • It is possible to train one's eye to observe other peoples behaviors and recognize their DiSC style.
  • You can be more effective in your interactions with other by adapting your behaviors based on other's priorities and preferences.

Target Audience: Workplace Managers / People Managers / Early and Mid Managers


Application: Managerial training programs, Teamwork and Conflict Management among team members, Personal development programs for managers.


Scope: Addresses interpersonal issues related to one to one communication with one's direct reports and supervisors. Provides insights related to one's delegating and directing style, how one motivates others, one's focus on developing team members and managing upwards.


Features: The Everything DiSC Management Map provides insights on how people manage workplace


Priorities: The eight words around the map represent the priorities of the DiSC styles at workplace. Priorities relate the areas where people like to focus their energy (behaviorally).


image of two dimensions of DISC (refer page 3 of DISC manual)

Time is a precious commodity. Most managers in their experience of leading people wonder if they could have more time on hand. Managerial positions come with loads of accountability. And because of the time pressure and the sense of accountability, many managers end up doing everything themselves. My learning the art of delegation, Managers can free up time for more strategic tasks. Delegation helps in motivating and developing people. It’s a critical driver for enhancing the bias for succession planning. Delegating, Motivating and developing add up to be major transitionary skills required for those moving from being an individual contributor to a people manager. Everything DiSC Management profile addresses these critical skills.


Everything DiSC Management assessment enhances delegation skills to the extent that managers can comfortably delegate both routine and important tasks. They can take more inclusive decisions. Instead of vacillating between micromanagement and abdicating responsibility, they can share both responsibility and authority with their team members to accomplish routine and important tasks. Everything DiSC Management thus enhances the level of trust in teams. Lack of confidence in the art of delegating tasks leads to (1) managers doing most tasks, sometimes routine and trivial tasks (2) Fails to empower team members with the right level of authority to accomplish the tasks (3) Micromanages at every step compromising motivation and creativity (4) May set unrealistic expectations (5) May over delegate beyond the capability and influence of the team member.


By gaining an in-depth understand of the behavioural styles, an appreciation of their own behavioural strengths and weaknesses and that of their team member can make changes to the process of delegation in way that there is a greater possibility of the tasks getting accomplished. It can lead to significant improvement in mutual trust, task outcomes and creativity.


Everything DiSC Management Report and Developing Others:

Another competency that managers are required to demonstrate is "developing direct reports". Everything DiSC provides specific insights in how a manager prefers to develop his team members and how the team members may have different preferences for engaging in a development task or conversation. Early and ineffective managers may tend to demonstrate any of these derailing behaviours when it comes to developing others -

  1. They may not prioritize people development in the plethora of tasks that they are responsible for
  2. They may prioritize immediate results and tactical things by compromising long term development plans
  3. They assume that development is natural and organic in nature so it requires no special effort or focus
  4. They may prefer recruiting talent as oppose to developing team members
  5. May not know how to develop and how to customize their development approach to the needs and preferences of everyone

Facilitated by the Everything DiSC Management Report, skilled Managers provide an element of challenge every time they delegate to carefully develop their team members. By knowing the preferences and behavioural priorities of their team members, Managers develop their team members by customizing their own approach to the development tasks, style of delegation and the pace of the environment they create. Everything DiSC Management report adds individualization and effectiveness to the three factors critical for developing people - A willingness in the team member to develop (clarity of goals helps), an establish development process in an organization and (3) A manager who believes in developing people for his own and organization's growth.


Everything DiSC Management Report focuses on one to one relationship between the Manger and the team Manager on one hand and between the manager and Manager's supervisor on the other. This reflects the reality of a Manager's life. Frequently working within the constraints of the team competency and the aspirations of the senior management, Managers need to establish high trust relationships with both the sides to manage expectations and deliver business outcomes by getting the best from the team members and the senior management.


Everything DiSC Management assessment addresses another critical area of a manager’s role – Motivating Others. Often, Managers may not understand what motivates others or how to go about motivating others. Many managers believe that everyone is motivated by the same thing – often money. This is far from true. Managers who are unable to motivate others often end up with team members who are underutilized, and unskilled. Managers who fail to motivate others fail to understand others and do not know how to read people with different priorities. They may end up being too judgemental and often put people into broad buckets / stereotypes.


Everything DiSC Management report provides insights to help managers get the best from their team members by keeping them motivated to put in their best always. They can create an environment that people long for. They demonstrate great ability to read people and understand their aspirations, motivation and challenges. Managers skilled in motivating others can easily empower power and make every individual feel important and wanted on the team. Effective managers are viewed as being fair and transparent in all their transactions.


Effective managers are flexible in their approach. They demonstrate managerial courage – They can situationally adapt themselves between task and people orientation. They provide direct and complete constructive feedback and are generous with praises for their team. They are not afraid to take corrective action when required either. Behavioural flexibility is neither easy nor quick. It takes conscious effort and specific inputs. Everything DiSC Management report helps managers build behavioural flexibility and managerial courage.


Everything DiSC Sales Profile

The Everything DiSC Sales is a unique profile that enables the salesperson to only understand self but also customers. Most sales organizations focus on products and services and inevitably the sales trainings also focus on products and services. Little or no attention is paid to the very critical human and behavioral aspect of sales. Both salespeople and customers are humans, so it would stand to reason that understanding human behavior and priorities would contribute to sales effectiveness. It is this premise that Everything DiSC Sales works on.


The Everything DiSC Sales is designed to help sales professionals in the following ways:

  • Understand own sales style
  • Understand customer priorities
  • Improve sales effectiveness with specific strategies

Even the best of salesperson is sometimes unable to connect with a particularly “tricky” customer. It is this disconnect that can cost a sale. The “tricky” customer is just a person who has priorities that are different form our own. For effective sales it is important to understand our own priorities and also priorities of our customers so that we can align our sales pitch to their requirement. The Everything DiSC Sales priority map can help us.


image of two dimensions of DISC (refer page 3 of DISC manual)
Let us understand the meaning of each of the priority words:
Priority Statement
Action This priority refers to being quick paced and being assured that things will move fast. People will this priority would like things to move along as soon as a decision is made and the sale is closed.
Enthusiasm Enthusiasm is about excitement related to the product/service. Suck individuals prefer to work with salespeople that are enthusiastic and passionate.
Relationships People with priority prefer salespeople who are relationship oriented and friendly. Customers with this priority don’t want to be considered just another client. Customers with this priority look for salespeople who they can connect with and enjoy talking to.
Sincerity Such customers prefer salespeople that are sincere in looking out for the best interest of the customer. They want the salesperson to be a good listener and have the patience to address questions and concerns of the customer.
Dependability Customers with this priority look for salespeople who are dependable. They look for thoroughness and responsibility from the salesperson.
Quality Customer with a priority for quality want to be sure that they will get the best quality in every product/service. They however are not convinced with mere words, and would like to see a demonstration of the quality.
Competency Such customers want a salesperson who is competent in handling matters. They prefer to work with salespeople who have a high degree of expertise in their area of work
Results These customers want salespeople who can get immediate results. They want to know how the product/service will have an impact on their success. Being quick paced, they like to see immediate results from the product/service.

Understanding and meeting the specific customer priorities can make the difference in any sales situation. With Everything DiSC Sales, a salesperson is enabled to create a sales pitch that is suitable to the specific needs of every customer. This customization right in the initial sales conversations will result in a higher winning percentage.


Everything DiSC Sales provides an in-depth analysis of the sales priorities of the salesperson. With this the individual can assess his/her sales strengths and challenges. Since self-awareness is the first step in bringing about a positive change, the Everything DiSC Sales can provide the initial push required to bringing about positive change. Knowing your sales strengths and challenges you can learn how to leverage your strengths and circumvent the challenges to make you a more effective salesperson.


Everything DiSC Sales moves a step further in enhancing the effectiveness of salespeople. This is done by educating the salesperson about the buying priorities of the different styles. Having understood self, it is also critical for a salesperson to empathize with the needs of customers and each customer comes with a different set of priorities. The report provides detailed information on how the salesperson needs to flex their style, the report provides specific strategies for interaction with different styles.


For example, a “D” styles customer would want to close the sale quickly and efficiently, with specific logical information. On the other hand, an “I” style customer will look for enthusiasm and excitement from the sales person. An “S” style customer looks for dependability and a trusting relationship with the salesperson. And a “C” style person, having a high quality orientation looks for high quality products and services and expertise from the salesperson. It becomes important for the salesperson to appeal to the requirements of the customer to build positive rapport and credibility. This is a major differentiating factor between mediocre and effective sales personnel.


The Everything DiSC Sales profile comes with an additional people reading module that provides a quick guide to enable the salesperson to recognize the DiSC style of the customers. This is done by observing the pace and orientation of the customer. A “D” style customer is fast-paced and task-oriented, an “I” style customer is fast-paced and people-oriented, an “S” style customer is moderate paced and people oriented and a “C” style customer is moderate paced and task oriented. Having recognized the DiSC style of a customer, a salesperson can devise strategies for effective selling.


Behavioral effectiveness can be an effective tool, along with product knowledge, to make salespeople truly effective.


Everything DiSC Work of Leaders Profile

The Everything DiSC suite of assessments by John Wiley & Sons are available in role and application specific profiles.


As the name suggests, the Everything DiSC Work of Leaders profile is meant for leaders. The profile recognizes leadership as a one-to-many relationship. This profile is designed to help leaders in the following ways:


  • Identify your own leadership style
  • Discover the best practices in leadership
  • Develop an action-plan for improving leadership effectiveness

The Work of Leaders gives the DiSC style of the leader, priorities that shape the leadership style of the leader and in addition 18 behavioral continuums that address important leadership dispositions.


The profile is designed to create an understanding of own leadership style and behaviors, and how these impact their effectiveness as a leader. With context-specific feedback and personalized tips, the Work of Leaders helps leaders create a concrete action-plan to enhance the effectiveness of their leadership style.


The Everything DiSC Work of Leaders is based on the 4-year research by Julie Straw and her team on 300 leaders across 150 organizations. Work of Leaders uses the framework of the VAE Model, a result of this research, that outlines the role of a leader with respect to three major functions that are integral to it – Vison, Alignment and Execution.


The Everything DiSC Work of Leaders gauges the effectiveness of the leaders in the 3 functions of – Vision, Alignment and Execution; based on 18 behavioral continuums that are arranged by drivers.


The Everything DiSC Work of Leaders scales are explained in the table below. The left and right label indicates the behavioral continuums, with the right label being the global best practice.


FUNCTION DRIVER LEFT LABEL RIGHT LABEL DEFINITION of RIGHT LABEL
Crafting a Vision Exploration Seeking Closure Remaining Open Leaders who remain open during the visioning stage, seek new information and look for various options before making a decision. This is what is required at the exploratory stage of crafting a vision.
Prioritizing Details Prioritizing the Big Picture Another priority that makes leaders effective at the exploratory stage of crafting a vision is the ability to prioritize the big picture. A leader, at this stage should be able to focus on the bigger picture rather than minute details.
Boldness Being Cautious Being Adventurous Boldness while crafting a visions is what distinguishes a great leader. He/she should be comfortable taking chances in uncertainty rather than sticking with the beaten path. Only then can a leader craft an inspiring vision.
Holding Back Speaking Out Boldness is also about being vocal and confident about new ideas. An idea kept to oneself can never become a vision. A bold leader is not afraid to share bold and unconventional ideas.
Testing Assumptions Deciding Independently Seeking Counsel/td> Crafting a vision is not just about being bold and adventurous, it is also about testing ones assumptions. A leader, while testing assumptions, seeks opinions of others, rather than making independent decisions.
Pushing Forward Exploring Implications A leader, while crafting a winning visions, investigates consequences in detail rather than taking immediate action.
Building Alignment Clarity Offering Intuition Explaining Rationale Once a vision is crafted, the next critical step is to align people towards the vision. The first step in building alignment is the ability of the leader to give a logical and objective explanation of the vision.
Impromptu Messaging Structured Messaging Building alignment is all about making the vision clear to people. A clear message that conveys the vision effectively, requires an organized and well-thought message rather than a spontaneous speech.
Dialogue Presenting Information Exchanging Perspectives Another critical element of building alignment, is to create a dialogue with the organization. A leader at this stage, need to provide information to create dialogue, rather than have a top-down approach.
Being Challenging Being Respective A constructive dialogue can only be created, if the leader is willing to listen and accept views of others. A skeptical leader at this stage would shut down dialogue and miss out on valuable and expert advice of others.
Inspiration Being Reserved Being Expressive Building alignment is also about inspiring people about the vision. A leader who inspires others by expressing his feelings or ideas can spark enthusiasm in others.
Being Matter-of -Fact Being Encouraging Inspiring others towards alignment also requires the leader to encourage others. The leader needs to communicate in an empathetic manner, rather than communicating plain facts.
Championing Execution Momentum Being Low-Key Being Driven A vision cannot become reality unless it is executed with perfection. Execution requires building the momentum towards attaining the vision. A leader, at this stage is required to pressure others to push themselves and be action-oriented.
Being Reactive Initiating Action Championing execution also means initiating action. A leader should initiate new action and modify the approach as required to achieve the vision.
Structure Improvising Providing a Path Execution is not all about action, it also required meticulous planning and structure. A leader conducts meticulous planning before staring a project to optimally allocate and utilize resources.
Follow First Impressions Analyzing In-Depth Providing structure while execution, requires a leader to think about difficult issues and come up with a detailed plan to manage them.
Feedback Maintaining Harmony Addressing Problems No vision can be executed without encountering roadblocks. A leader should be comfortable addressing problems and unhealthy behaviors, rather than avoiding them.
Offering Less Praise Offering More Praise Executing a vision is hard work. It requires maintaining morale in the face of problems. A leaders should offer praise to the people and recognize good work as a tool to build morale.

(Reference: Work of Leaders by Julie Straw and others)

Work of Leaders enables individuals to become better leaders and organizations reach their true potential. The profile is used to unleash the leadership strengths of people both through personal coaching and workshops.


The Work of Leaders is a supplement available with this profile that brings together participant data t create a comprehensive leadership profile of the group. Using graphical representation, the profile illustrates the group’s approach to Vision, Alignment and Execution and helps in understanding the group’s strengths and challenges to create a concrete leadership success plan.

Everything DiSC 363 for Leaders Profile

The Everything DiSC 363 for Leaders is designed to provide a 360-degree feedback to leaders. The survey gauges the leaders on their leadership style and is designed to provide feedback on their leadership performance.


The Everything DiSC 363 for Leaders, can help leaders with:
  • Receiving valuable and constructive feedback from colleagues
  • Understanding the leadership best practices with the help of a leadership framework
  • Getting insights on improving personal leadership effectiveness

The circular map in the Everything DiSC 363 for Leaders, is based on eight leadership approaches. Each approach is related to 3 leadership practices and the assessment provides insights on the performance of the leader on these leadership practices. The approaches and practices are depicted as the image given below:


disc map

Most organizations struggle with a 360 feedback, because rather being a tool, it becomes a way of steeling scores and venting personal frustrations. On many occasions, after this cumbersome and expensive exercise, organizations are unable to share the actual feedback with the person because it is filled with hateful language and unhelpful feedback. Also, most 360 feedback systems end at the feedback stage and fail to provide a way-forward in terms of improvement areas.


The Everything DiSC 363 for Leaders has been designed to tap all the benefits of a 360 feedback, minus the unconstructive elements. The tool helps raters provide feedback in critical leadership skills and raters can provide only constructive feedback using the CommentSmart option. The comments are designed to help expand the meaning of rating and providing the rationale behind it. The tool also provides 03 key strategies for improvement based on the feedback, hence the name 363 instead of just a 360 feedback.


The Everything DiSC 363 has an added advantage of unlimited number of raters in the 4 categories – managers, peers, direct reports and others. This truly provides an all-round and a balanced view of the leader’s performance.


The survey is sent out to the leader and the other raters. The leader takes a 2-section assessment online. This consists of an Everything DiSC assessment and a section on Leadership Behavior. The raters also respond to a 2-section assessment, online. This also consists of the Leadership Behavior section and a Leadership Requests section. While the Leadership Behavior section is about how the leader leads, the Leadership Requests section asks questions about practices that the raters want the leader to exhibit more often.


The 25+ page report provides insights on:


  • Leadership outlook of the leader
  • Difference in how the leader sees himself/herself as compared to the raters
  • Ratings as per 4 groups – managers, peers, direct reports and others
  • Leader’s performance on the 8 leadership approaches and 24 practices
  • 3 strategies for development

Since a 360 feedback is a complicated process, Everything DiSC 363 for Leaders comes with an exclusive website to help organizations through the process. This website provides information regarding set-up, communication, assessment, coaching and wrap-up.


The project phases for an Everything DiSC 363 for Leaders include:
  1. Set-Up - In the Set-up phase, the purpose, scope and timeline of the project should be clarified. There should be clarity about how the Everything DiSC 363 for Leaders will be used in the organization. Rather than using it for performance appraisal, an effective use the 363 tool is for developmental purposes. The scope of the project should clarify the leaders who will be participating in the initiative and defining the rater groups. Who will constitute the “Other” rather group should also be decided. Another clear definition to be provided at this stage is the timeline. The timeline should create a sense of urgency but should be realistic at the same time.
  2. Communication – A key element of successful 360 projects is clarity and timeliness of communication. The Everything DiSC 363 for Leaders support provides detailed information on what should be communicated to the various people in the organization, how the communication should happen and who is responsible for the communication. The organization should set its own context regarding the need and benefits of the initiative, but details about the logistics and assessments can be taken from the Everything DiSC 363 support.
  3. Assessment – This phase of the project involves sharing access codes with the leaders and raters. Any changes to be made to the leader or rater information can be done at this stage also. Once ratings and assessments are completed, the reports are generated online. The minimum number of raters for all categories, except Manager, are 2.
  4. Coaching – This is an a critical phase in the 360 project. This is where the Everything DiSC 363 for Leaders report is shared with the leader. The outcome of coaching is to help the leader in understanding the feedback and identifying the areas of improvement. The coach should work with the leader to create an action-plan and set goals for enabling change. The coaching session should preferably be done face-to-face.
  5. Wrap-Up - The last stage of the 360 project, like any other project, is to measure the success of the project and articulate the learnings from the project to be taken into consideration for future.

The holistic approach of the Everything DiSC 363 for Leaders and the extensive support ensures successful implementation of this critical initiative organization-wide.

Five Behaviors of a Cohesive Team

The Five Behaviors of a Cohesive Team Profile is a team intervention based on Patrick Lencioni's bestselling leadership parable. Five Behaviors of a Cohesive Team helps organizations to apply the lessons of Five Dysfunctions to become a more cohesive, effective team.


Target Audience: Teams of all sizes (Industry agnostic) Strategic Teams, Mission Critical Teams, Geographically distributed Teams, Leadership teams and more.


Application: Team training programs, Development Programs, Leadership Development Programs focusing on teamwork


Scope: Helps establish behavioral norms that promote teamwork critical to achieving collective results.


Features: The Assessment has two sections – A self assessment and a team survey. The pursuing report is customized for each individual. An annotated team report provides great insight to the facilitator. Comes with Five Behaviors Comparison report. Also available is a world class facilitation kit to help trainers and facilitators with handouts, videos and activities.


So, what does it take to build a great team? Whether you are managing a team of surgeons, a strategic team in an IT company or a team of call center agents managing a mission critical project, the dynamics of the team have some common and some unique elements. The Five Behaviors of a Cohesive Team™ has been designed with a goal to help you create a high performance cohesive team. Its facilitates a learning experience that supports individuals, teams and organizations to discover the behaviors and practices that make a team become cohesive and the one that prioritizes collective results. As Patrick Lencioni said, teamwork is the Ultimate Strategic Advantage! The Five Behaviors of a Cohesive Team profile, is based on the model described in The Five Dysfunctions of a Team, the best-selling leadership fable by Patrick Lencioni.


Five Behaviors of a Cohesive Team - Is it an assessment, a training program or a facilitation kit?

Five Behaviors of Cohesive Team is a combination of the above three - A self-assessment, a team survey and an experiential program that is supported by a world class facilitation kit. It provides a way for a team to consider their team work on the 5 elements of trust, conflict, commitment, accountability, and results. Additionally, the program is powered by Everything DiSC®, a model that helps individuals understand their own behavioral priorities - strengths and challenges and understand others. Using these insights, participants work together to create a cohesive high-performance team.


Five Behaviors of a Cohesive team is, as the team suggests, for teams. The question to consider is how do you define a team? Because not every group / cohort of people can be called a team. A team is essentially defined as a small group of people that are aligned to a common goal. As an extension on the same, they also share the responsibilities that contribute towards achieving the same. It is important to establish the team members not only report to the same manager but also have high level of mutual accountability and interdependence in carrying out day to day tasks of the team. When teams undergo a Five Behaviors of a Cohesive team program, they essentially go through a journey of 5 steps of enhancing vulnerability based trust, managing conflict, making commitments, holding one another accountable and focusing on collective results. This journey is unlikely to produce best results in case the group of people experiencing the journey isn’t really a team with good level of interdependence, common goals and perhaps the same manager.


The Five behaviors of a cohesive team provide a simple, concise, predictable and well-structured process for measuring, improving and sustaining teamwork. It is founded in scientific research and behavioral science.


Strengthscape offers the Five Behaviors Program in multiple formats. It is important to engage with our facilitators to determine the best fit duration, pedagogue and activities based on where your team is in terms of the 5 steps of the Five Behaviors model. The five steps, as defined in the Five Dysfunctions of a Team Model are as follows:


disc map

Trust - Trust One Another

When team members are genuinely transparent and honest with one another, they can build vulnerability-based trust. High vulnerability based trust is important to create a fertile ground for breakthrough thinking. The role of a leader is crucial in building vulnerability based trust where people can acknowledge their goof ups and openly admit mistakes.


Managing Conflict - Engage in Debate Around Ideas

When there is trust, team members can engage in unfiltered, constructive debate of ideas. A healthy debate is a content of argumentation between two individuals or more and is focused around ideas. Great teams practice debating ideas irrespective of the rank and file of the person proposing it. They engage in meaningful discussion that promotes openness of ideas and building collective commitment. The important aspect of what Patrick Lencioni has highlighted is that the discussion and debate is around ideas and not personalities.


Commitment - Commit to Decisions

When team members can offer opinions and debate ideas, they will be more likely to commit to decisions. To drive greater commitment to decisions, it is important to achieve the first two steps – establish vulnerability based trust and discuss ideas openly without the fear of being judged or shot down. When the two steps are achieved, cohesive teams can make greater commitment to teamwork. This stems from the ability of the team members to present their issues and concerns with the decisions. They feel values irrespective of the fact whether some or many the members of team agree with their idea or opinion on various issues. It is easier to tap into the commitment of the team members if they are participating in team debates by choice.


Accountability - Hold One Another Accountable

When everyone is committed to a clear plan of action, they will be more willing to hold one another accountable. It is important to establish a culture of mutual accountability. Many times, managers and supervisors, use their position as a crutch to drive accountability. Good teams have a good sense of accountability to the boss. Great teams are accountable to each other. Because the teams have jointly committed to team decisions, they are greater drive to hold one another accountable. This improves the level of interdependence the team has on one another.


Results - Focus on Achieving Collective Results

A good “observable behavior” of great work how people focus on collective results. Teams establish norms where everyone is focusing on common good. Behaviors typical of advancing one’s own career or interest at the cost of the team goals or common good are highly discouraged. Teamwork requires establishing practices and norms that can work against the natural tendency to look out for ourselves before others. The goal of building greater trust, healthy conflict, commitment, and accountability is one thing: the achievement of collective results.


Based on our experience of conducting the Five Behaviors of a Cohesive Team Program, we have a simple checklist to ensure that the program produces the desired results for you.


Ensure that the group of people undergoing the assessment are really a team. A simple questionnaire can help you determine the same. Ask us for the same.


With the assessment, ascertain how the team is currently doing on team work. Teamwork is simple but hard work. It requires sustained practice and an undeterred commitment to make it work.


Discuss the results with our facilitators and see how the program needs to be designed. The program duration can vary from days to months.


Everything DiSC Productive Conflict

Conflict at workplace or anywhere cannot be avoided. Where there are two people with differing opinions, conflict is bound to happen. We have heard about being productive by managing conflict. But now the new mantra is “productive conflict”. It is about maneuvering through conflict in a way that would yield productive results and strong interpersonal relationships. Productive conflict is a behavioral skill.


So, the common notion is that conflict is of ideas and not personalities. We debate ideas and not personalities of people to be more productive. But, that is not always so. It is insightful to know that sometimes it is our differing personalities and behavioral tendencies that can lead to conflict. Everything DiSC Productive Conflict highlights how our personalities and behavioral tendencies can lead to conflict. And therefore, by flexing one’s behavior, one can make conflict productive.


It is definitely a skill to use conflict productively. But, what is required for developing this skill is self-awareness – which behaviors of mine lead to conflict, how do I deal with or manage conflict, what strategies can I use to engage in more productive conflict.


To help increase this self-awareness and to master “productive conflict”, Everything DiSC Productive Conflict assessment has been developed.


Why Productive Conflict?

“Productive Conflict” is one of the most important behaviors that should be displayed by a team. This is because, in a team, although conflict is inevitable, “productive conflict” is essential for any team to grow.


The foundation of productive conflict is vulnerability-based trust. If individuals in a group are able to express their thoughts and viewpoints clearly, without any resistance or fear of retaliation, then conflict in such groups automatically becomes productive. But what plays a bigger role is acceptance of each behavioral style, identifying that other members of the team may not have similar behavioral priorities like we do, and then applying strategies to flex behaviors in order to be effective. Working with this mindset, does not make conflict an obstacle; rather, conflict becomes instrumental in bringing to the table different perspectives, ideas and innovation that is accepted and respected by all.


Productive conflict in a cohesive team can help to come up with the best solution to a problem in a short duration of time. It can make even quick decisions effective without fail. What productive conflict also brings along is ownership of and commitment to the situation at hand. It is for all these advantages that Productive Conflict has become a new addition to Everything DiSC assessment list.


What are the Productive Conflict behaviors of the DiSC styles?

A conflict situation is a stressful situation and therefore, under stress each style begins to show more of their dominant behaviors. D styles take more control of the situation, they tend to be assertive and give justification to win over the conflict situation. i styles use their strength of being able to express effectively. They tend to be assertive so that they are heard and would keep reassuring themselves by revisiting the conversation. The ultimate thing for i styles is that they shouldn’t be disliked after the conflict and therefore, strive to maintain good interpersonal relationships through constant reassurance.


What about productive conflict behaviors of S and C styles?

S styles, as we know, strive to maintain status quo – they tend to conform in order to maintain harmony. In a conflict situation, S styles would accommodate others in the conversation. Like, i styles, S styles are also people-oriented and therefore, use the tool of reassuring the other person to not possibly damage the relationship with them. The ultimate aim here is to maintain stability which they do by agreeing with the other person, even though deep down they tend to disagree.


C style productive conflict behaviors are easy to guess – relying on logic, data and figures and objective evaluations. Because they are detail-oriented, they may go to the core of the conflict situation, have their strong points of defense ready and take an analytical approach in anything they say or do in that situation. One cannot use the tool of reassurance to win the conflict because emotions threaten their stability. If emotions tend to arise, they step back and become quieter.


As we can, Everything DiSC Productive Conflict skillfully ties up the primary motives and other behaviors of each style in order to highlight their productive conflict behaviors.


How does this assessment help?

First, Everything DiSC Productive Conflict assessment provides a 22-page comprehensive, personalized report. Since the assessment is personalized for your DiSC style, it helps each individually to engage in productive conflict.


Second, the assessment highlights the causes of destructive behaviors that lead to conflict. What destructive behavior D style shows that leads to conflict? Or, what causes S styles to get into conflict? These behaviors are mentioned in the light of the respective style’s goals, fears and overuse behaviors.


Third, strategies for effective communication are offered to engage in productive conflict.


Everything DiSC Productive Conflict has been conceptualized to indicate a positive side to conflict – one that builds relationships rather than increasing animosity; fosters communication rather than fueling misunderstanding; invites new ideas and brainstorming rather than curbing innovation. These have been identified as the positive functions of conflict.


Why should I trust this assessment?

The assumptions about Productive Conflict have not been made just in the air. Each proposition is supported with statistical data and research study results. Each hypothesis is well tested – which means the assessment has high psychometric properties. Responsive technique is used in Everything DiSC Productive Conflict assessment to keep updating and improving its reliability and validity. This also means that the assessment profile becomes more accurate and personalized.


What’s more?

Everything DiSC Productive Conflict assessment can also generate comparison reports. Therefore, it is not just about knowing oneself but also comparing one’s behavior with someone else in the workplace in order to identify the conflict areas, its reasons, and strategies to make it better. The advantage with generating comparison reports is that rather than getting a general perspective on how to be effective with another style, one can be more specific.


Great teams show productive conflict. Everything DiSC Productive Conflict enables each individual to contribute in such cohesive teams by making them more self-aware and effective. Remember, it is not always differing ideas that lead to conflict. Sometimes, it is also differing behavioral tendencies that block the acceptance of innovative ideas. Use conflicts productively, and be more efficient on the job.


DiSC scales and styles – Psychometric Properties

Thorough research has shown Everything DiSC assessments to have very high psychometric properties. When we talk about psychometric properties, we focus on three factors – norms, reliability and validity. Everything DiSC assessments have high applicative value because it has been standardized on the appropriate population and has yielded consistent results in whatever it claims to measure.


Norms of Everything DiSC assessment

The Everything DiSC assessment has been standardized on a sample of 26,703 individuals representing the general U.S. population. The assessment has also been translated into other languages for which local norm groups were used for standardization.


For various assessment with specific applications such as Sales, Management, and Work of Leaders, the standardization was conducted on that specific population. For instance, the Everything DiSC Sales assessment was standardized based on empirical data gathered from both customers and sales people. Similarly, Everything DiSC Management has been standardized on managers.


Standardizing the assessment on the appropriate population increases the authenticity with which results can be interpreted. If a management profile is standardized on sale individuals then the results and interpretation is questionable because the behavioral priorities for the two are different.


Reliability of Everything DiSC assessment

Typically two types of reliability measures were used to establish the consistency of Everything DiSC assessments – Internal reliability and Test-retest reliability.


Internal consistency is about evaluating the degree of correlation among items (or questions in the form of statements) that claim to measure the same thing. Cronbach's alpha coefficient is used assess internal consistency reliability. The underlying principle is that if all the items on a given scale measures the same thing, then the degree of correlation among them should also be high.


There are eight scales in a DiSC model which are assessed with specific set of items. The eight scales are Di, i, iS, S, SC, C, CD and D. The other four scales iD, Si, CS and DC are assessed with the same items as Di, iS, SC and CD respectively and hence, have not been included.


For Everything DiSC assessment, the internal consistency reliability was assessed for two sample groups. The first group had 752 respondents while the second group had 39,607 respondents. Results showed all the scales to have good-to-excellent internal consistency. All the reliabilities were found to be well above 0.70 with a median of 0.87 (N=752) and 0.83 (N=39, 607). Based on these results we can say that the items for each of the scales have a high degree of correlation among them and successfully assesses the respective scale.


The second type of reliability is Test-retest reliability. It refers to the ability of the assessment to yield consistent and stable results over a period of time. Test-retest reliability is assessed by administering the complete assessment to the same group of respondents twice, with a suitable time gap between the two administrations. The most effective time gap is generally a fortnight. The results yielded from the two administrations are then compared to determine how strongly they correlate.


A highly reliable assessment should be able to produce similar results every time it is administered on the same individual. In the context of Everything DiSC assessment, an individual who has scored high on D scale will continue to score high in that quadrant irrespective of how many times the assessment is administered. He or she will suddenly not score high on S scale.


Test-retest reliability is quantified by calculating reliability coefficients – correlation between a group's initial score (first administration) and subsequent score (second administration) - which ranges from –1 to +1. Similar to internal consistency reliability, a reliability coefficient above 0.70 is acceptable and coefficient above 0.80 is excellent.


The test-retest reliability was conducted on 599 respondents. Results for test-retest reliability also showed the scales to have excellent reliability that goes to show that Everything DiSC assessment yields consistent results. These highlighted data discussed so far pertains to a general framework of Everything DiSC assessment. The reliability was established for each assessment under Everything DiSC. Each of the assessments were found to have good-to-excellent reliability.


Validity of Everything DiSC assessment

Similar to reliability, two types of validity was assessed for Everything DiSC assessment – construct validity and criterion validity.


Construct validity is the degree to which an assessment measures what it claims or purports to measure. A construct is an abstract idea or concept. The Di scale for instance measures a particular construct such as tendency to be bold, fast-paced and adventurous. Being bold also means that the person my be more of a risk taker and is less cautious. Therefore, if we say that being bold has high validity, it means that people scoring high on Di scale, scores relatively low on cautiousness. Criterion validity, as the name suggests, refers to the extent to which the results of Everything DiSC assessment relates to a external criteria or outcome.


In the case of Everything DiSC assessment, both construct and criterion validity was found to be high. The assessment was also compared with personality assessments such as NEO-FFI and was found to have strong correlations with the same as well, further indicating high validity.


For any psychological or behavioral assessment, it is essential to consider its psychometric properties because it increases the authenticity of that assessment. One can trust a highly reliable and valid assessment tool to predict or yield genuine and accurate results. As for Everything DiSC assessment, standardized on a vast sample, and having high reliability and validity, one can completely rely on the results generated.


Why Everything DiSC scores over DiSC Classic

John Wiley and Sons bought Inscape Publishing and as a result the famous DiSC assessments are now a part of Wiley's assessments business. Have you ever wondered what the difference between the most popular assessment DiSC Classic and Everything DiSC is? As a trainer, you have been used to administering DiSC Classic assessments and therefore are you now finding it difficult to sell Everything DiSC assessments? DiSC Classic is a tenured assessment and there is a visible shift in Wiley's focus in promoting Everything DiSC assessments. Here are some of the reasons why you should shift to Everything DiSC:


Everything DiSC Follow Up Reports - Comparison & Group Culture Report

Comparison reports make it possible to create conversations between people in a workshop. These reports are available only for the assessments using a circumplex model that means Everything DiSC series. Its a great follow up report for team building and for enhancing participants ability to engage in Productive Conflict.


Narrative is easy to relate to

The Everything DiSC report feels more personal. Being role specific, it is easy to associate with, sounds relevant and easy to action. The Everything DiSC profiles are based on adaptive testing method as opposed to 28 forced choice questions used in DiSC Classic. It's reliability is higher and it is more precise too as it has eight scales as opposed to 4 in DiSC Classic.


Visual Appeal

Moreover, the circumplex used in Everything DiSC reports makes it more engaging and visually appealing. It’s easy to decipher and makes group conversations flow naturally. Visuals make interpretation of the graph rather intuitive for a trained eye. It's easy to remember. For trainers, it’s easy to create games and activities using the visual. These activities are typically used to enhance people's ability to flex their style situationally!


Application focus makes it relevant

Psychometric assessments, across the promoters, seem to be becoming more application focused. This is good. When you can interpret your behaviour based on everyday work situations in the context of your job role, the feedback becomes more relevant and actionable. For example, Everything DiSC Management Profile focuses on managerial tasks, Sales report for sales process and Work of Leaders on the leadership style.


Everything DiSC Facilitation Kits

Today's workplace is empowered by technology and is many times a virtual set up. By providing application based DIY facilitation kits, Wiley has enhanced the applicability of reports to large roll outs of training programs. These facilitation kits include DiSC based videos, handouts and presentation decks that trainers can use to customize with their own logo and branding.


Adaptive Testing makes it easy!

Adaptive testing involves asking questions on a 5 point scale. This means that respondents need to choose an appropriate answer to a question. The middle choice is "neutral" which makes it easier to take the assessment as compared to a forced choice questionnaire like DiSC Classic. Comparison reports make it possible to create conversations between people in a workshop. These reports are available only for the assessments using a circumplex model that means Everything DiSC series. Its a great follow up report for team building and for enhancing participants ability to engage in Productive Conflict.


An Authorized Everything DiSC Partner, Strengthscape is a "Business Psychology" company that provides tools and techniques for development the number one capital asset of a company - Its people!


If you are looking for information about the world's best DiSC based assessments, their application, prices, and nuances of implementation, then this is the place. We provide 'best in class" service to our customers and associate trainers to help them roll out DiSC and provide a common language of Strengths. Our Master Trainers and Assessment administration staff are only an email away! Whether you want to buy DiSC assessments, gain a DiSC trainer certification or need support in rolling out DiSC assessments across your employee base, write to us at contact@strengthscape.com